Controlling parenting and executive functioning in children born preterm


  • Carolina Toscano Universidade do Minho
  • Cindy Sá Psychology Research Center (CIPsi), School of Psychology, University of Minho
  • Joana Baptista Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e de Intervenção Social (CIS-IUL)
  • Vanessa Moutinho Psychology Research Center (CIPsi), School of Psychology, University of Minho
  • Isabel Soares Psychology Research Center (CIPsi), School of Psychology, University of Minho



Executive functioning, Controlling parenting, Father, Prematurity


This study investigated the relations between mothers’ and fathers’ controlling behaviors and the executive functioning of children born preterm. Sixty-eight preterm children and their parents were assessed when the children were 3 ½ years old. The executive functioning was measured using the Head-to-Toes-Task and controlling parenting behaviors were measured through a standardized observation of a parent-child interaction. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that both mothers’ and fathers’ controlling behaviors were associated with worse child executive functioning performance, after controlling for the child’s cognitive ability. Findings suggest that both mothers and fathers play an important role in the development of executive functioning of children born prematurely, highlighting the need to consider both parents in the study of and intervention with these children.


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Como Citar

Toscano, C., Sá, C., Baptista, J., Moutinho, V., & Soares, I. (2022). Controlling parenting and executive functioning in children born preterm. PSICOLOGIA, 36(2), 66–73.



Número temático - Fathering in diverse sociocultural contexts