Perceções dos psicólogos portugueses acerca da inibição comportamental / retraimento social e das necessidades de intervenção que lhes subjazem durante a infância precoce

  • Maryse Guedes William James Center for Research, ISPA - Instituto Universitário
  • Leandra Coelho William James Center for Research, ISPA - Instituto Universitário
  • António J. Santos William James Center for Research, ISPA - Instituto Universitário
  • Manuela Veríssimo William James Center for Research, ISPA - Instituto Universitário
Palavras-chave: Inibição comportamental; retraimento social; idade pré-escolar; intervenções preventivas baseadas na evidência.

Resumo

Dada a elevada prevalência das perturbações de ansiedade, verificou-se uma necessidade emergente de intervir nos fatores de risco precoce para o seu desenvolvimento, nomeadamente na inibição comportamental e no retraimento social (IC/RS) em idade pré-escolar. Porém, a participação em intervenções preventivas para a IC/RS é modesta, devido ao reduzido reconhecimento do problema pelos pais e profissionais (educadores e pediatras) que trabalham com o público-alvo. Dado o seu papel central na promoção do reconhecimento do problema, este estudo teve como objetivo explorar as perceções dos psicólogos portugueses acerca da IC/RS e das necessidades de intervenção que lhes subjazem. Dezoito psicólogos foram distribuídos em três grupos focais. Cada grupo foi moderado por um investigador, seguindo um guião semiestruturado. Os participantes identificaram as manifestações e consequências da IC/RS (particularmente no domínio social) e recomendaram o desenvolvimento de intervenções familiares multimodais e de intervenções para educadores, destinadas à promoção de competências sociais no jardim-de-infância.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

Arbeau, K. A., Coplan, R. J., & Weeks, M. (2010). Shyness, teacher-child relationships, and socioemotional adjustment in grade 1. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34, 259-269. doi;10.1177/0165025409350959

Asendorpf, J. (1990). Beyond social withdrawal: Shyness, unsociability, and peer avoidance. Human Development, 33, 250-259. https://doi.org/10.1159/000276522

Bandelow, B., & Michaelis, S. (2015). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21rst century. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 17, 327-335.

Barstead, M (in press). Psychosocial correlates of social withdrawal and its many variants: A quantitative synthesis of research spanning four decades. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.25266.09925

Bayer, J., Baetson, R., Bretherton, L., Hiscock, H., Wake, M., Gilbertson, T., Mihapoulous, C., … & Rapee, R. M. (2017). Translational delivery of Cool Little Kids to prevent child internalizing problems: Randomized controlled trial. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 181-191. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417726582

Bosacki, S., Coplan, R. J., Rose-Krasnor, L., & Hughes, K. (2011). Elementary teachers’ reflections of shy children in the classroom. Alberta Journal of Educational Psychology, 57(3), 273-287.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In R. M. Lerner & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 793-828). John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Caldas-Almeida, J., & Xavier, M. (2013). Epidemiological national study about mental health: First report. Lisbon: Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade de Lisboa.

Carpenter, A. L., Pincus, D. B., Perrin, E., Bair-Merrit, M. H., & Mian, N. D. (2018). Early identification of anxiety disorders: The role of the pediatrician in primary care. Children’s Health Care, 47, 34-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/02739615.2016.1275642

Casiglia, A. C., LoCoco, A., & Zappulla, C. (1998). Aspects of social reputation and peer relationships in Italian children: A cross-cultural perspective. Developmental Psychology, 34, 723-730. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.4.723

Cauce, A. M., Dominech-Rodriguéz, M., Paradise, M., Cochran, B. N., Shea, J. M., Srebnik, D., & Baydar, N. (2002). Cultural and contextual influences in mental health help seeking: A focus on ethnic minority youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 44-55. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.1.44

Chronis-Tuscano, A., Danko, C., Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., & Novick, D. (2018). Future directions for research on early intervention for young children at risk of social anxiety. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 47(4), 655-667.. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2018.1426006

Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Pine, D. S., Perez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, Y., Raggi, V. L., & Fox, N. A. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 928-935. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181ae09d

Chronis-Tuscano, A., Rubin, K. H., O’Brien, K. A., Coplan, R. J., Thomas, R., Dougherty, L. R. … & Wimsatt, M. (2015). Preliminary evaluation of a multi-modal early intervention for inhibited preschoolers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 534-540. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039043

Coelho, L., Guedes, M., Rodrigues, E. D., Santos, A. J., & Veríssimo, M. (2018). Perfis de brincadeira e conhecimento emocional em crianças de idade pré-escolar [Play profiles and emotional knowledge in preschool children]. Análise Psicológica, 26, 87-100. https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1357

Coplan, R. J., & Arbeau, K. A. (2008). The stresses of a brave new world: Shyness and school adjustment in kindergarten. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 22, 377-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568540809594634

Coplan, R. J., & Evans, M. A. (2009). At loss for words? Introduction to the special issue on shyness and language in childhood. Infant and Child Development, 18, 211–215. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.620

Coplan, R. J., & Weeks, M. (2009). Shy and soft-spoken: Shyness, pragmatic language, and socio-emotional adjustment in early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 18(3), 238-254. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.622

Coplan, R. J., Bullock, A., Archbell, K. A., & Bosacki, S. (2015). Preschool teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and emotional reactions to young children's peer group behaviors. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30(Part A), 117-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.09.005

Coplan, R. J., Hughes, K., Bosacki, S., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2011). Is silence golden? Elementary school teachers' strategies and beliefs regarding hypothetical shy/quiet and exuberant/talkative children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 939-951. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024551

Coplan, R. J., Prakash, K., O’Neil, K., & Armer M. (2004). Do you “want” to play? Distinguishing between conflicted-shyness and social disinterest in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 40, 244-258. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.244

Coplan, R. J., Schneider, B. H., Matheson, A., & Graham, A. (2010). Play skills for shy children: Development of a social facilitated play early intervention program for extremely inhibited preschoolers. Infant Child and Development, 19, 223-237. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.668

Correia, J., Santos, A. J., Freitas, M., Ribeiro, O., & Rubin, K. H. (2014). As relações entre pares de adolescentes socialmente retraídos [The peer relationships of socially withdrawn adolescents]. Análise Psicológica, 32, 467-479. https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.870

Danko, C.M., O'Brien, K.A., Rubin, K.H., & Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2018). The Turtle Program: PCIT for young children displaying behavioral inhibition. In L.N. Niec (Ed.), Handbook of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Innovations and applications for research and practice (pp.85-98). Springer.

Dobbs, J., Doctoroff, G. L., Fisher, P. H., & Arnold, D. H. (2006). The association between preschool children's socio-emotional functioning and their mathematical skills. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 97-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2005.12.008

Eyberg, S. M., Nelson, M. M., & Boggs, S. R. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with disruptive behavior. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 215-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701820117

Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: Psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00262

Fox, N., Henderson, H. A., Marshall, P. J., Nichols, K. E., & Ghera, M. M. (2005). Behavioral inhibition: Linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 235-262. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141532

Godoy, L., & Carter, A. S. (2013). Identifying and addressing mental health risks and problems in primary care pediatric settings: A model to promote developmental and cultural competence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajop.12005

Guedes, M., Coelho, L., Santos, A. J., Veríssimo, M., Rubin, K. H., Danko, C., & Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2019). Perceptions of Portuguese psychologists about the acceptability of a parent intervention targeted at inhibited preschoolers. Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 4(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/23794925.2018.1555443

Hane, A. A., Cheah, C., Rubin, K. H., & Fox, N. A. (2008). The role of maternal behavior in the relation between shyness and social reticence in early childhood and social withdrawal in middle childhood. Social Development, 17, 795-811. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00481

Hirschfeld-Becker, D. R., & Biederman, J. (2002). Rationale and principles for early intervention with young children at risk for anxiety disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5, 161-172. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019687531040

Huberman, A. M., & Miles, M. B. (1994). Data management and analysis method. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 428-444). Sage Publications.

Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1987). The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in children. Child Development, 58, 1459-1473.

Kalutskaya, I., Archbell, K. A., Rudasill, K. M., & Coplan, R. J. (2015). Shy children in the classroom: From research to educational practice. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 1.2., 149-157. https://doi.org/10.1037/tps0000024

Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., Filene, J. H., & Boyle, C. L. (2008). A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 567-589. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9201-9

Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. (2014). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (5th ed.). Sage.

Lewis-Morrarty, E., Degnan, K. A., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Rubin, K. H., Cheah, C. S. L., Pine, D. S., Henderson, H. A., & Fox, N. A. (2012). Maternal over-control moderates the association between early childhood behavioral inhibition and adolescent social anxiety symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 1363-1373. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9663-2

McCabe, K. M., & Yeh, M. (2005). The GANA Program: A tailoring approach to adapting parent-child interaction therapy for Mexican Americans. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 111-129.

Mian, N. D. (2014). Little children with big worries: Addressing the needs of young, anxious children and the problem of parent engagement. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17, 85-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-013-0152-0

O’Brien, D., Harvey, K., Howse, J., Reardon, T., & Creswell, C. (2016). Barriers to managing child and adolescent mental health problems: A systematic review of primary care practitioners’ perceptions. British Journal of General Practice, 66(651), e693-707. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp16X687061

O’Brien, D., Harvey, K., Young, B., Reardon, T., & Creswell, C. (2017). GP’s experiences of children with anxiety disorders in primary care: A qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice, 67(665), e888-e898 https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp17X693473

O'Connor, E. E., Cappella, E., McCormick, M. P., & McClowry, S. G. (2014). Enhancing the academic development of shy children: A test of the efficacy of INSIGHTS. School Psychology Review, 43, 239-259.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2016a). Education at a glance. Author.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2016b). Society at a glance: OECD social indicators. Author.

Pincus, D. B., Eyberg, S. M., & Choate, M. L. (2005). Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for young children with separation anxiety disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 163-181.

Rapee, R. M., & Jacobs, D. (2002). The reduction of temperamental risk for anxiety in withdrawn preschoolers: A pilot study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30, 211-215. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465802002084

Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S., Ingram, M., Edwards, S., & Sweeney, L. (2005). Prevention and early intervention of anxiety disorders in inhibited preschool children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 488-497. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.488

Reardon, T., Harvey, K., Young, B., O’ Brien, D., & Creswell, C. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to parents seeking and accessing professional support for anxiety disorders in children: Qualitative interview study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 1023-1031. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-1107-2

Rubin, K. H., Bowker, J. C., Barstead, M. G., & Coplan, R. J. (2018). Avoiding and withdrawing from the peer group. In W. M. Bukowski, B. Laursen, & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships and groups (2nd ed.) (pp. 322-346). The Guilford Press.

Rubin, K. H., Cheah, C., & Fox, N. (2001). Emotion regulation, parenting and display of social reticence in preschoolers. Early Education and Development, 12, 97-115. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15566935eed1201_6

Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., & Bowker, J. C. (2009). Social withdrawal in childhood. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 141-171. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163642

Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., Fox, N. A., & Calkins, S. D. (1995). Emotionality, emotion regulation, and preschoolers' social adaptation. Development and Psychopathology, 7(1), 49-62. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400006337

Rubin, K. H., Hemphill, S. A., Chen, X., Hastings, P., Sanson, A., lo Coco, A., … & Doh, H. S. (2006). Parenting beliefs and behaviors: Initial findings from the International Consortium for the Study of Social and Emotional Development (ICSSED). In K. H. Rubin & O. B. Chung (Eds.), Parenting beliefs, behaviors, and parent-child relationships: A cross-cultural perspective (pp. 81-103). Psychology Press.

Rubin, K.H., Barstead, M.G., Smith, K.A., & Bowker, J.C. (2018). Peer relations and the behaviorally inhibited child. In K. Perez-Edgar & N.A. Fox (Eds.), Behavioral inhibition during childhood and adolescence (pp. 157-184). Springer.

Santos, A. J., Daniel, J., Antunes, M., Coppola. G., Trudel, M., & Vaughn, B. (2020). Change in preschool children’s children social engagement positively predicts changes in social competence: A three-year longitudinal study of Portuguese children. Social Development, 29(2), 544-563. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12411

Santos, A. J., Monteiro, L., Sousa, T., Fernandes, C., Torres, N., & Vaughn, B. (2015). Low social engagement: Implications for children psychosocial adjustment in the preschool context. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 28, 186-193. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-7153.201528120.

Sette, S., Baumgartner, E., Laghi, F., & Coplan, R. J. (2016). The role of emotion knowledge in the links between shyness and children's socio-emotional functioning at preschool. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 34, 471-488. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjdp

Smith, K. A., Hastings, P. D., Henderson, H. A., & Rubin, K. H. (2019). Multidimensional emotion regulation moderates the relation between behavioral inhibition at age 2 and social reticence with unfamiliar peers at age 4. Journal of Abnormal Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-00509-y

Spere, K. A., Schmidt, L. A., Theall, L., & Martin-Chang, S. L. (2004). Expressive and receptive language skills of temperamentally shy preschoolers. Infant and Child Development, 13(2), 123-133. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.345

Spere, K., & Evans, M. A. (2009). Shyness as a continuous dimension and emergent literacy in young children: Is there a relation? Infant and Child Development, 18(3), 216-237. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.621

Srebnik, D., Cauce, A. M., & Baydar, N. (1996). Help-seeking pathways for children and adolescents. Journal of Behavioral and Emotional Disorders, 4, 210-220. https://doi.org/10.1177/106342669600400402

Strand, P. S., Pula, K., Parks, C. D., & Cerna, S. (2011). Shyness–anxiousness and receptive language skills development in Spanish- and English-speaking preschoolers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32, 363-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2011.06.002

Vaughn, B., Santos, A. J., Monteiro, L., Shin, N., Daniel, J. R., Krzysik, L., & Pinto, A. (2016). Social engagement and adaptive functioning during early childhood: Identifying and distinguishing among subgroups differing with regard to social engagement. Developmental Psychology, 52, 422-1434. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000142

Wall, K., & Gouveia, R. (2014). Changing meanings of family in personal relationships. Current Sociology, 62, 352-373. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392113518779

Publicado
2020-08-07
Como Citar
Guedes, M., Coelho, L., Santos, A. J., & Veríssimo, M. (2020). Perceções dos psicólogos portugueses acerca da inibição comportamental / retraimento social e das necessidades de intervenção que lhes subjazem durante a infância precoce. PSICOLOGIA, 34(1), 147-161. https://doi.org/10.17575/psicologia.v34i1.1434
Secção
Artigos