Decent work, positivity, and the satisfaction with life of Portuguese lawyers: An empirical study
Palavras-chave:Decent Work, positivity, satisfaction with life, well-being, health
The present study aimed to investigate the associations between Decent Work (DW) and the Positivity and Life Satisfaction of Portuguese lawyers (N = 84). The Decent Work Questionnaire, the Positivity Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were applied. The multiple regression linear analysis showed that: Fulfilling and productive work was an important antecedent of the Positivity, and that Fulfilling and productive work, Meaningful remuneration for the exercise of citizenship and Opportunities were antecedents of Satisfaction With Life. Then, the analysis of canonical correlations showed that six DW dimensions (exception for Social protection) were significant and positively related to Positivity and Satisfaction With Life. The perception of Decent Work is relevant to promoting Positivity and Satisfaction With Life for Portuguese lawyers. Limitations, practical implications, and future development prospects are presented in the final section.
Alessandri, G., Caprara, G. V., & Tisak, J. (2012). The unique contribution of positive orientation to optimal functioning. European Psychologist, 17(1), 44-54. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000070
Allan, B. A. (2017). Task significance and meaningful work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 102, 174–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.07.011
American Bar Association. (2001-2002). ABA Commission on Billable Hours Report. Available at http://ilta.personifycloud.com/webfiles/productfiles/914311/FMPG4_ABABillableHours2002.pdf
Armano, E., & Murgia, A. (2013). The precariousnesses of young knowledge workers: A subject-oriented approach. Global Discourse: An interdisciplinary Journal of Current Affairs and Applied Contemporary Thought, 3(3-4), 486-501. https://doi.org/10.1080/23269995.2013.865313
Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2), 127–152. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.20070
Bohart, A. C., & Greening, T. (2001). Humanistic psychology and positive psychology. American Psychologist, 56(1), 1, 81-82. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.1.81
Borsa, J. C., Damásio, B. F., Souza, D. S., Koller, S. H., & Caprara, G. V. (2015). Psychometric properties of the positivity scale: Brazilian version. Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica, 28(1), 61-67. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-7153.201528107
Botsford, M. (2019). Supreme judicial court steering committee on lawyer well-being report to the justices. Supremo Tribunal Judicial de Massachusetts (Ed.).
Brafford, A. M. (2018). Well-being toolkit for lawyers and legal employers. USA: American Bar Association. Available at https://judicialstudies.duke.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Panel-5-ABA-Legal-Employers-Toolkit.pdf
Brafford, A., & Rebele, R. W. (2019). Judges’ well-being and the importance of meaningful work. Court Review, 54, 60–72.
Bryant, G. K., & Powell, J. H. (2019). The occupational risks of the practice of Law. Report of the Virginia State Bar president’s special committee on lawyer well-being. Virginia State Bar. Available at https://www.vsb.org/docs/VSB_wellness_report.pdf
Buchanan, B., & Coyle, J. C. (2017). National task force on lawyer well-Being: Creating a movement to improve well-being in the legal profession. Task Force. USA. Available at https://lawyerwellbeing.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Lawyer-Wellbeing-Report.pdf
Caetano, A. (Coord.) (2003a). Inquérito aos advogados portugueses: uma profissão em mudança. Revista da Ordem dos Advogados, III(63), parte II, 1-138.
Caetano, A. (Coord.) (2003b). Análise descritiva dos resultados do inquérito. Revista da Ordem dos Advogados, III(63), parte I, 139-322.
Caetano, A. (Coord.) (2003c). Comentários sobre alguns resultados do inquérito aos advogados portugueses. Revista da Ordem dos Advogados, III(63), parte III, 323-390.
Caprara, G. V., Alessandri, G., Eisenberg, N., Kupfer, A., Steca, P., Caprara, M. G., Yamaguchi, S., Fukuzawa, A., & Abela, J. (2012). The Positivity Scale. Psychological Assessment, 24(3), 701-712. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026681
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Alessandri, G., Abela, J. R. Z., & McWhinnie, C. M. (2010). Positive orientation: Explorations on what is common to life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 19(1), 63-71. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1121189X00001615
Cipriani, R., Ferraro, T., & Oderich, C. (2021). Trabalho digno, satisfação com o trabalho e com a vida em Administradores. Revista Psicologia Organizações e Trabalho, 21(3), 1548-1559. https://doi.org/10.5935/rpot/2021.3.21635
Daicoff, S. (2008). Lawyer, be thyself: An empirical investigation of the relationship between the ethic of care, the feeling decision making preference, and lawyer wellbeing. The Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law, 16(1), 87-140.
Dattalo, P. V. (2014). A demonstration of canonical correlation analysis with orthogonal rotation to facilitate interpretation. Unpublished manuscript, School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 580–590. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.4.580
Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former Eastern bloc country: A cross-cultural study of self-determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(8), 930–942. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201278002
Diener, E., Emmons, A., Larsen, J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
Diener, E., Scollon, C. K. N., Oishi, S., Dzokoto, V., & Suh, M. E. (2000). Positivity and the construction of life satisfaction judgements: Global happiness is not the sum of its parts. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1(2), 159–176. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010031813405
Direção Geral da Política de Justiça (DGPJ, 2019). Advogados inscritos. Available at https://estatisticas.justica.gov.pt/sites/siej/pt-pt [General Direction for Justice Policy]
Dos Santos, N. R., Mónico, L., Pais, L., Gagné, M., Forest, J., Cabral, P. F., & Ferraro, T. (2022). Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale: Psychometric studies in Portugal and Brazil. Management Research, The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, Advance online publication.
Drobnič, S., Beham, B., & Präg, P. (2010). Good job, good life? Working conditions and quality of life in Europe. Social Indicators Research, 99(2), 205–225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9586-7
Ferraro, T., dos Santos, N. R., Moreira, J. M., & Pais, L. (2020). Decent work, work motivation, work engagement and burnout in physicians. International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 5(1-2), 13–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/S41042-019-00024-5
Ferraro, T., dos Santos, N. R., Pais, L., & Mónico, L. (2016). Historical landmarks of decent work. European Journal of Applied Business and Management, 2(1), 77-96.
Ferraro, T., dos Santos, N. R., Pais, L., & Moreira, J. M. (2017). Decent work and work motivation in lawyers: An empirical research. Revista Psicologia Organizações e Trabalho, 17(4), 192-200. https://doi.org/10.17652/rpot/2017.4.13908
Ferraro, T., Moreira, J. M., dos Santos, N. R., Pais, L., & Sedmak, C. (2018a). Decent work, work motivation and psychological capital: An empirical research. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, 60(2), 339-354. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-182732
Ferraro, T., Pais, L., dos Santos, N. R., & Moreira, J. M. (2018b). The Decent Work Questionnaire (DWQ): Development and a validation in two samples of knowledge workers. International Labour Review, 157(2), 243-265. https://doi.org/10.1111/ilr.12039
Ferraro, T., Pais, L., Moreira, J. M., & dos Santos, N. R. (2018c). Decent work and work motivation in knowledge workers: The mediating role of psychological capital. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 13(2), 501-523. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-017-9539-2
Forstenlechner, I., & Lettice, F. (2008). Well paid but undervalued and overworked. Employee Relations, 30(6), 640–652. https://doi.org/10.1108/01425450810910037
Fredrickson, B. (2009). Positivity: Groundbreaking research reveals how to embrace the hidden strength of positive emotions, overcome negativity, and thrive. Crown Publishers/Random House.
Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory as a new framework for understanding organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-362. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.322
Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2014). The history of self-determination theory in psychology and management. In M. Gagné (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory (pp. 1-9). New York: Oxford University Press.
Gagné, M., Forest, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Crevier-Braud, L., Van den Broeck, A., Aspeli, A. …, & Westbye, C. (2015). The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale: Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(2), 178–196. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2013.877892
Gagné, M., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2013). Self-determination theory's contribution to positive organizational psychology. In A. B. Bakker (Ed.), Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 61-62). Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (2005). Análise multivariada de dados. 5ª Ed. Bookman.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences: international differences in work-related values. Sage Publications.
Hogstedt, C., Wegman, D., & Kjellstrom, T. (2007). The consequences of economic globalization on working conditions, labor relations, and workers’ health. In I. Kawachi & S. Wamala (Eds.), Globalization and health (pp. 138–157), Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172997.003.0008
Hu, J., & Hirsh, J. (2017). Accepting lower salaries for meaningful work. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01649
International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. IBM Corporation.
International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation (2016). Extension bundles from IBM SPSS. IBM Corporation.
International Labour Organization. (1999). Decent work. Report of the Director-General. International Labour Office.
International Labour Organization. (2008). Measurement of decent work. Discussion paper for the tripartite meeting of experts on the measurement of decent work, 8–10 September. International Labour Office.
International Labour Organization. (2013). Decent Work indicators: Guidelines for producers and users of statistical and legal framework indicators. 2nd Version. International Labour Office.
Johannessen, J.-A. (2019). The workplace of the future: The fourth industrial revolution, the precariat, and the death of hierarchies. Routledge.
Joo, B.-K., & Nimon, K. (2014). Two of a kind? A canonical correlational study of transformational leadership and authentic leadership. European Journal of Training and Development, 38(6), 570-587. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJTD-12-2013-0129
Jorgensen, I. S. & Nafstad, H. E. (2004). Positive psychology: Historical, philosophical, and epistemological perspectives. In P.A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp.15-34). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Joseph, S. & Linley, P. A. (2004). Applied positive psychology: A new perspective for professional practice. In P.A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 3-12). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kalleberg, A. L., & Vallas, S. P. (Eds.) (2018). Precarious Work: Causes, Characteristics, and Consequences. Book Series: Research in the Sociology of Work, vol. 31. Emerald Publishing.
Krieger, L., & Sheldon, K. (2015). What makes lawyers happy? A data-driven prescription to redefine professional success. The George Washington Law Review, 83(2), 554-627.
Krill, P., Johnson, R., & Albert, L. (2016). The prevalence of substance uses and other mental health concerns among American attorneys. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 10(1), 46–52. https://doi.org/10.1097/adm.0000000000000182
Kuruvilla, S. (2020). Globalization and employment relations. In C. Frege and J. Kelly (Eds), Comparative employment relations in the global economy (pp. 31-53), 2nd Ed. Routledge.
Laranjeira, C. (2009). Preliminary validation study of the Portuguese version of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 14(2), 220-226. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548500802459900
Lee, C., Huang, G., & Ashford, S. (2018). Job insecurity and the changing workplace: recent developments and the future trends in job insecurity research. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 335-359. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104651
Lucchini, R. G., & London, L. (2014). Global occupational health: Current challenges and the need for urgent action. Annals of Global Health, 80(4), 251-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2014.09.006
Luthans, F. & Avolio, B.J. (2009). The “point” of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(2), 291-307. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.589
Luthans, F. (2002a). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(6), 695-706. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.165
Luthans, F. (2002b). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2002.6640181
Luthans, F., Luthans, K., & Luthans, B. (2004). Positive psychological capital: Going beyond human and social capital. Business Horizons, 47(1), 45-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2003.11.007
Méle, D., & Sánchez-Runde, C. (2013). Cultural diversity and universal ethics in a global world. Journal of Business Ethics, 116, 681-687. https://doi.org/10.1080/23269995.2013.865313
Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Applied Multivariate Research: Design and interpretation. 2nd Ed. Sage Publications.
Monahan, J., & Swanson, J. (2019). Lawyers at the peak of their careers: A 30-year longitudinal study of job and life satisfaction. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 16(1), 4–25. https://doi.org/10.1111/jels.12207
Organ, J. M., Jaffe, D. B., & Bender, K. M. (2016). Suffering in silence: The survey of law student well-being and the reluctance of law students to seek help for substance use and mental health concerns. Journal of Legal Education, 66(1), 116–156.
Pituch, K. A., & Stevens, J. P. (2016). Applied multivariate statistics for the social science: Analyses with SAS and IBM’s SPSS. Routledge.
Rothstein, L. (2008). Law students and lawyers with mental health and substance abuse problems: protecting the public and the individual. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 69(3), 531–566. https://doi.org/10.5195/lawreview.2008.106
Seligman, M. E. P. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.5
Sherry, A., & Henson R. K. (2005). Conducting and interpreting canonical correlation analysis in personality research: A user-friendly primer. Journal of Personality Assessment, 84(1), 37-48. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa8401_09
Somavía, J. (2006). Changing patterns in the world of work. Report of the Director-General. International Labour Conference, 95th session 2006. Report I (C). International Labour Office.
Standing, G. (2011). The precariat: The new dangerous class. Bloomsbury Academic.
Standing, G. (2014). A precariat charter: From denizens to citizens. Bloomsbury Academic.
Standing, G. (2020). Battling eight giants: Basic income now. I. B. Tauris.
Štreimikienė, D., & Grundey, D. (2009). Life Satisfaction and Happiness: The factors in work performance. Economics & Sociology, 2(1), 9–26.
Tenney, E. R., Poole, J. M., & Diener, E. (2016). Does Positivity enhance work performance? Why, when, and what we don’t know. Research in Organizational Behavior, 36, 27-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2016.11.002
Torp, S., & Reiersen, J. (2020). Globalization, work, and health: A Nordic perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(20), 7661. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207661
Walsh, R. (2001). Positive psychology: East and west. American Psychologist, 56(1), 83-84. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.1.83